Human Anatomy and Physiology

Biology 1120

The Urinary System

Module 24.1 Overview of the Urinary System
Learning Outcomes

  1. List and describe the organs of the urinary system.
  2. Describe the major functions of the kidneys.
Module 24.2 Anatomy of the Kidneys
Learning Outcomes
  1. Describe the external structure of the kidney, including its location, support structures, and covering.
  2. Trace the path of blood flow through the kidneys.
  3. Describe the major structures, subdivisions, and histology of the renal corpuscle, renal tubule, and collecting system.
  4. Trace the pathway of filtrate flow through the nephron and collecting system.
  5. Compare and contrast cortical and juxtamedullary nephrons.
Module 24.3 Overview of Renal Physiology
Learning Outcome
  1. List the three major processes in urine formation.
Module 24.4 Renal Physiology I: Glomerular Filtration
Learning Outcomes
  1. Describe the structure of the filtration membrane.
  2. Define the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and its average value.
  3. Explain how the hydrostatic and colloid osmotic pressures combine to yield the net filtration pressure in the glomerulus.
  4. Predict specific factors that will increase or decrease GFR.
  5. Explain how the myogenic and tubuloglomerular feedback mechanisms affect the GFR.
  6. Describe the role of each of the following in the control of the GFR: renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, atrial natriuretic peptide, and sympathetic nervous system activity.
Module 24.5 Renal Physiology II: Tubular Reabsorption and Secretion
Learning Outcomes
  1. Describe how and where water, organic compounds, and ions are reabsorbed in the nephron by both passive and active processes.
  2. Describe the location(s) in the nephron where tubular secretion occurs.
  3. Describe how the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, antidiuretic hormone, and atrial natriuretic peptides each work to regulate reabsorption and secretion.
Module 24.6 Renal Physiology III: Regulation of Urine Concentration and Volume
Learning Outcomes
  1. Explain why the differential permeability of specific sections of the renal tubule is necessary to produce concentrated urine.
  2. Predict specific conditions that cause the kidneys to produce dilute versus concentrated urine.
  3. Explain the role of the nephron loop, the vasa recta, and the countercurrent mechanism in the concentration of urine.
Module 24.7 Putting It All Together: The Big Picture of Renal Physiology
Learning Outcome
1.     Describe the overall process by which blood is filtered and filtrate is modified to produce urine.
Module 24.8 Urine and Renal Clearance
Learning Outcomes
  1. Explain how the physical and chemical properties of a urine sample are determined and relate these properties to normal urine composition.
  2. Explain how filtration, reabsorption, and secretion determine the rate of excretion of any solute.
  3. Explain how renal clearance rate can be used to measure GFR.


Module 24.9 Urine Transport, Storage, and Elimination
Learning Outcomes
  1. Describe the structure and functions of the ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra.
  2. Relate the anatomy and histology of the bladder to its function.
  3. Compare and contrast the male and female urinary tracts.
  4. Describe the micturition reflex.
  5. Describe voluntary control of micturition.
Module 24.10 Putting It All Together: The Big Picture of Urine Formation, Storage, and Elimination
Learning Outcome
1.   Describe the overall process by which urine is formed, stored, and eliminated.

Notes A

Notes B

Knowledge sheet with answers

Workbook sheet with answers