Human Anatomy and Physiology

Biology 1120

Chapter 17 The Cardiovascular System I: The Heart

Overview of the Heart

Learning Outcomes

  1. Describe the position of the heart in the thoracic cavity.
  2. Describe the basic surface anatomy of the chambers of the heart.
  3. Explain how the heart functions as a double pump and why this is significant.
Heart Anatomy and Blood Flow Pathway
Learning Outcomes
1.     Describe the layers of the pericardium and heart wall.
     Describe the location and function of coronary circulation and great vessels.
     Describe the structure and function of the chambers, septa, valves, and other structural features of the heart.
     Trace the pathway of blood flow through the heart, and explain how structures of the heart ensure that blood flows in a single direction.
Cardiac Muscle Tissue Anatomy and Electrophysiology
Learning Outcomes
  1. Describe the histology of cardiac muscle tissue, and differentiate it from that of skeletal muscle.
  2. Describe the phases of the cardiac muscle cell action potential, including the ion movements that occur in each phase, and explain the importance of the plateau phase.
  3. Contrast the way action potentials are generated in cardiac pacemaker cells, cardiac contractile cells, and skeletal muscle cells.
  4. Describe the parts of the cardiac conduction system, and explain how the system functions.
  5. Identify the waveforms in a normal electrocardiogram (ECG), and relate the ECG waveforms to electrical activity in the heart..

Mechanical Physiology of the Heart: The Cardiac Cycle

Learning Outcomes
  1. Describe the phases of the cardiac cycle.
  2. Relate the opening and closing of specific heart valves in each phase of the cardiac cycle to pressure changes in the heart chambers.
  3. Relate the heart sounds and ECG waveforms to the normal mechanical events of the cardiac cycle.
  4. Compare and contrast pressure and volume changes of the left and right ventricles and the aorta during one cardiac cycle.
Cardiac Output and Regulation
Learning Outcomes
  1. Define and calculate cardiac output, given stroke volume, heart rate, and end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes.
  2. Describe the factors that influence preload, afterload, and contractility, and explain how they affect cardiac output.
  3. Explain the significance of the Frank-Starling law for the heart.
  4. Discuss the influence of positive and negative inotropic and chronotropic agents on stroke volume and heart rate, respectively.
  5. Predict how changes in heart rate and/or stroke volume will affect cardiac output.

Objectives word document


Part A

Part B

Knowledge sheets