Human Anatomy and Physiology

Biology 1220

Chapter 6 Bones and Bone Tissue

Module 6.1 Introduction to Bones as Organs
Learning Outcomes

  1. Describe the functions of the skeletal system.
  2. Describe how bones are classified by shape.
  3. Describe the gross structure of long, short, flat, irregular, and sesamoid bones.
  4. Explain the differences between red and yellow bone marrow.
Module 6.2 Microscopic Structure of Bone Tissue
Learning Outcomes
  1. Describe the inorganic and organic components of the extracellular matrix of bone tissue.
  2. Explain the functions of the three main cell types in bone tissue.
  3. Describe the microscopic structure of compact bone and the components of the osteon.
  4. Describe the microscopic structure of spongy bone.
Module 6.3 Bone Formation: Ossification
Learning Outcomes
  1. Explain the differences between primary and secondary bone.
  2. Describe the process of intramembranous ossification.
  3. Describe the process of endochondral ossification.
Module 6.4 Bone Growth in Length and Width
Learning Outcomes
  1. Describe how long bones grow in length.
  2. Compare longitudinal and appositional bone growth.
  3. Describe the hormones that play a role in bone growth.


Module 6.5 Bone Remodeling and Repair
Learning Outcomes
  1. Describe the process of bone resorption and bone deposition.
  2. Describe the physical, hormonal, and dietary factors that influence bone remodeling.
  3. Explain the role of calcitonin, parathyroid hormone, and vitamin D in bone remodeling and calcium ion homeostasis.
  4. Describe the general process of bone repair.


Notes part A

Notes part B

Knowledge sheets